Ultrasound, also known as ultrasonography, is a procedure in which tissues and organs of the body are examined with high-energy sound waves. Ultrasound is a non-invasive and painless procedure. It uses high frequency sound waves, called ultrasound, to create images of organs, soft tissues, blood vessels and blood flow from inside the body. These images are used for medical analysis.
A device called a transducer converts electrical current into sound waves that are sent to body tissue. The sound waves reflect the body structures and are reflected in the transducer, which converts them into electrical signals. A computer converts the pattern of electrical signals into an image that is displayed on a monitor and recorded on a movie, video or digital image. The idea of ultrasound comes from sonar technology, which uses sound waves to detect underwater objects.
Ultrasound is used to obtain images of soft tissue structures, such as soft tissues.
- Blocks in the blood vessels.
- Female reproductive organs and
- Even children still in the womb.
Ultrasound cannot be used to obtain bone images because they are too narrow for entry. In addition, the intestinal tract and normal lung tissue are not easily identifiable by ultrasound since air or gases interfere with the production of ultrasound images.
Ultrasound offers many advantages:
- Ultrasound is painless, relatively inexpensive and is considered very safe during pregnancy.
- Ultrasound captures images of soft tissues that are not clearly visible on radiographs.
- In fact, there are no known harmful effects if used by the doctor.
- Ultrasound is more common and less expensive than other methods.
- Patients are not exposed to ionizing radiation, which makes the procedure safer than diagnostic techniques, such as X-rays and CT scans.
Mechanism of Ultrasonography
It transmits sound waves of 1 to 10 million hertz to a transducer by placing it in body structures. The sound waves are absorbed or collide with crystals in the transducer head. For example, sound waves pass through empty or fluid-filled areas, such as the bladder and blood vessels. These areas appear black on the screen. Cloth-filled areas provide a certain amount of color penetration and refraction and create a grayish image. Very hard structures such as bones produce a bright white image because sound waves are fully reflected in the transducer.
Normally, the patient is asked to lie on the table with the appropriate part of the body. A transducer or probe is used to project and receive sound waves and their echoes. The examiner applies a thick gel on the skin to ensure good sound transmission. A palmar transducer is placed on the skin and moves to the area to be examined. To evaluate the parts of the body, the examiner inserts the transducer into the body, as in the vagina, for example, to better show the uterus and ovaries.
Types of ultrasound
Most ultrasounds are performed with a transducer on the skin’s surface. However, doctors and technicians can sometimes obtain a better diagnostic image by inserting a special transducer into one of the natural holes: in a transvaginal ultrasound transducer wand, the vagina is inserted into the woman’s vagina to obtain better images of the uterus and the ovaries Transrectal ultrasound is sometimes used to diagnose prostate problems. In a transesophageal echocardiogram, the transducer probe in the esophagus is used to obtain clearer images of the heart. Ultrasound ultrasounds are: Doppler ultrasound can be used to control blood flow in the heart and arteries of blood vessels. To measure and visualize healthy tissue Differentiate tumors Therapeutic ultrasound is used to heat or break a tissue. Ultrasonic whitening (HIFU) is used to destroy or modify abnormal body tissues without opening the skin.
Uses of Ultrasonography
Ultrasound is commonly used for diagnosis, treatment and orientation in procedures such as biopsies. It can be used to examine internal organs such as the liver and kidneys, pancreas, thyroid, testicles, ovaries and others. This can help diagnose problems with soft tissues, muscles, blood vessels, tendons and joints. It is used to examine frozen shoulders, tennis elbow, carpal tunnel syndrome, etc. An ultrasound can show if a mass is a tumor. This can be a cancer or a cyst filled with liquid. Ultrasonography is commonly used to evaluate the following:
1. Blood vessels: ultrasounds can be used to look for diseases of the blood vessels. By measuring the blood flow and obstruction of the carotid artery, the test can predict the potential risk of a future stroke.
2. Heart: ultrasound of the heart, called echocardiography. It is used to detect cardiac arrhythmias, structural abnormalities such as heart valve disorders and abnormal enlargement of the cavities or walls of the heart.
3. Biliary and biliary tract: the ultrasound examination is used to detect gallstones and blockages in the bile duct.
4. Pregnancy: ultrasounds are used to examine the growth and development of the fetus and to detect abnormalities of the placenta (for example, placenta previa)
5. Liver, spleen and pancreas: ultrasounds are also used to detect tumors and other diseases.
6.Knee: with ultrasound, it is possible to detect a swelling of the knee joint at the back of the knee, the so-called Baker’s cyst. Therapeutic applications of ultrasound: ultrasound can be used to help doctors guide needles through the body. If an intravenous line is needed, but it is difficult to find a vein, ultrasound can be used to identify the larger veins in the neck, chest wall or groin area.
7. Female reproductive organs: for example for the detection of tumors and inflammations in the ovaries, in the fallopian tubes or in the uterus
8. Urinary: ultrasound is used to distinguish benign cysts from solid masses (which can be cancerous) in the kidneys or to detect blockages such as stones or other structural abnormalities in the kidneys, ureters or blisters.