Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors are a class of drugs that inhibit or block an enzyme known as phosphodiesterase (PDE).
PDEs naturally break down phosphate groups and lower cAMP or cGMP into target cells.
PDE inhibitors are classified according to the enzymes for which they act as non-specific inhibitors of PDE5, PDE4, and PDE3.
Inhibitors of PDE3 have positive inotropic, vasodilatory, and antiplatelet effects in acute heart failure and peripheral vascular disease.
PDE3 inhibitors are not recommended for long-term use because of their strong cardiostimulatory effect in heart failure patients.
PDE4 inhibitors allow bronchial dilatation in severe COPD.
PDE5 inhibitors cause pulmonary vasodilation and slackening of the smooth muscle of the penis. They are used in pulmonary arterial hypertension and erectile dysfunction.
Its important to understand that Nitrates or alpha-blockers are highly contraindicated in patients already taking PDE5 inhibitors because of the risk of life-threatening hypotension.
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are classified into PDE3 and PDE5 inhibitors
Some key highlights of this Phosphodiesterase inhibitors class are
Milrinone: It is a vasodilator and can be used as a short-term treatment for treat life-threatening heart failure. Milrinone belongs to a group of drugs known as inotropes, which work by assisting the heart to pump more blood through the body.
Congestive heart failure.
Common side effects of milrinone include
Less common and more severe side effects include
Consult Your healthcare provider if you have the above side effects.
Amrinone (or inamrinone) is a type 3 pyridine phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It is a positive inotropic with vasodilating properties.
Phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor activity and how to stimulate the influx of calcium ions into the heart cell. Amrinone is an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE3), leading to increased cAMP and cGMP, resulting in increased calcium input, resulting in an increased inotropic effect. The main excretion route in humans is urine, both by inamrinone and by various metabolites (N-glycolyl, N-acetate, glucuronide, and N-glucuronide). The chemical interaction with precipitates occurs with amrinone and dextrose or furosemide. Therefore, a mixture of drugs should be avoided.
It is used in the treatment of
Common side effects of amrinone include
Cilostazol is an antiplatelet aggregate and a vasodilator. It works by preventing blood cells, called platelets, from clumping together and preventing harmful clots’ formation. It also dilates the blood vessels in the legs.
Cilostazol helps the blood to move more quickly and ensures the fluidity of blood in your body. Inhibition of platelet aggregation and vasodilation are important cilostazol mechanisms; it is used to treat intermittent claudication in peripheral arterial disease. Cilostazol appears to have less cardio stimulant effects than milrinone.
Cilostazol is used to improve the symptoms of a particular blood flow problem in the legs.
The most common adverse effects of cilostazol are:
Sildenafil belongs to a group of drugs known as Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors type 5 (Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors) and is used to treat male sexual function problems (impotence or erectile dysfunction-ED). In combination with sexual stimulation, sildenafil works by increasing blood flow to the penis to help a man get and keep an erection.
It is most commonly used for two primary conditions such as
The most common side effects include:
Less commonly, some users have experienced cyanopsia, where everything appears to have a tinted blue tinge.
It is in a class of Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors type-5 (PDE5) inhibitors that also include sildenafil and vardenafil.
Tadalafil is an oral drug that is used for
The most common side effects of tadalafil are
This drug also belongs to a group of drugs known as Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors type -5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Other agents of this group are sildenafil and udenafil. The mechanism of action is the same as that of sildenafil.
It is used in the treatment of
Common side effects includ
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