Greenstick Fracture: Types, Diagnosis, Symptoms, Treatment, & FAQs

Greenstick Fracture

A greenstick fracture occurs when a bone is bent and broken, instead of breaking completely. The fracture looks like what happens when you try to break a small “green” branch in a tree. It is an incomplete fracture with a transverse fracture line that leads to the destruction of the outer layer of the bone (cortex), which extends to the nucleus or bone marrow without altering the opposite cortex. Thus, the discontinuity is only on one side. Most Greenstick fractures occur in children under 10 years old. This type of fracture is more common in children because their bones are softer and more flexible than those of adults. Even slight fractures of the green stem are usually immobilized in a cast. A cast not only contains fragments of broken bones for healing, but also prevents fractures when the child falls on them.


Following are the types of greenstick fractures

  • Greenstick Fracture of Clavicle:

If a child is exposed to a direct blow to the upper chest, chest, shoulder or hand, greenstick fracture of the clavicle may occur. The bones of the collarbone become stronger at the age of 20, which means that even teenagers can have these fractures.

  • Greenstick Fracture of Wrist:

This fracture occurs when a child falls from a height, lands on the palm, or hits the palm of his hand directly. The lower third or middle third of the radius or bones of the forearm breaks in the wrist.

  • Greenstick Fracture of Tibia: In a tibial fracture, the middle third or lower third of the tibial shaft is broken. This can happen when a child suffers a direct blow to the leg or lands on his leg from a height.


The doctor performs a physical examination and looks for tenderness, swelling, deformity or deafness. To check for nerve damage, sometimes with bone lesions, your doctor may ask you to move your fingers or perform other similar tests. They can also control the joints above and below the wound. To make sure your green stick is broken, you can recommend an x-ray.

Greenstick Fracture


Greenstick Fracture Symptoms

The symptoms of a Greenstick fracture vary depending on the severity of the fracture. They can only develop bruising or general tenderness in lighter fractures. In other cases, a significant curvature at the end or in the broken region, accompanied by swelling and pain. Symptoms also depend on the location of the lesion. For example, if the injury occurs on the finger, it may not be possible to move the finger for a long time. An arm fracture can also be painful and cause swelling and tenderness while maintaining mobility Green stick Fractures in children occur more often during a fall. Arm fractures are more common than leg fractures because the usual reaction is to throw the arms to catch them during a fall.


Treatment Depending on the severity of the green fracture, the doctor may need to straighten the bone by hand so that it can heal properly. During this procedure analgesics and possibly tranquilizers will be administered to the patient. Fractures of the green stick present a high risk of complete fracture of the bone. As a result, many of these types of fractures are immobilized in a jet during healing. Sometimes the doctor may decide that a removable splint can work, especially if the fracture is largely healed. The advantage of a splint is that the child can remove it to wash or shower. X-rays will be needed in a few weeks for the fracture to heal properly to verify bone alignment and determine when a cast is no longer needed. Most fractures of the green stem require four to eight weeks for complete healing, depending on the child’s fracture and age.


Frequently Asked Questions

What is a greenstick break?

A greenstick fracture is a tear or a fracture on one side of a long bone in the arm or leg. The crack or fracture does not extend across the bone. It takes its name from the way a fresh green twig behaves when folded.

Who is most affected by the greenstick fracture?

Children are more prone to fractures than Greenstick because their bones are softer and less fragile than those of adults.

What is the frequency of Greenstick fractures?

Greenstick fractures are very common. Every year, millions of children are affected in the United States. A break of the green stick often occurs when a child falls and tries to break the deal with his arms.

Can I prevent Greensticks fractures?

It is possible to reduce the risk of fractures for the child by providing adequate safety equipment for the sport and trying to prevent falls or other injuries that cause fractures.

What are the causes of Greenstick fracture?

Greenstick fractures result from the bending of a bone. Any force that bends a long bone, such as an arm or leg, without completely breaking it, can break the green pin. Instead of breaking into two pieces, the bone breaks on one side. Greenstick fractures can be caused by many factors, such as participation in sports, motor vehicle accidents, and falls.

What are the symptoms of greenstick fractures?

Symptoms of greenstick fractures include:

  • Swelling
  • Bruising
  • Pain
  • Tenderness

The symptoms of a greenstick fracture depend on the severity of the crack.

How long does a Greenstick fracture take to heal?

The healing depends on the location of the fracture and the severity of the fracture. For example, a simple fracture of the arch for 2 or 3 weeks requires a plaster cast and is almost completely cured in 4 weeks. Children recover about half the time an adult needs to recover from a similar injury.

When to see a doctor?

Consult your doctor if your child has persistent pain in an injured limb. See a doctor immediately if a child is unable to support their weight or if pain, distortion, and swelling are noticeable.

Ultrasonography: A Helpful Guide to Ultrasound Use, Procedure, Types


Ultrasonography, also known as ultrasound or sonography, is a procedure in which body tissues and organs are examined using high-energy sound waves. Ultrasound is a non-invasive and painless procedure. It uses high-frequency sound waves, called ultrasound, to create images of organs, soft tissues, blood vessels, and blood flow from inside the body. These images are used for medical analysis. A device called transducer converts electrical current into sound waves that are sent to the body tissue. The sound waves reflect body structures and are reflected on the transducer, which converts them into electrical signals. A computer converts the pattern of electrical signals into an image displayed on a monitor and recorded on a film, video tape, or digital image. The idea of ​​ultrasound comes from sonar technology, which uses sound waves to detect underwater objects.

Ultrasound is used to create images of soft tissue structures such as

  • Liver,
  • Gall bladder,
  • Heart,
  • Kidneys,
  • Female reproductive organs and
  • even babies still in the womb.
  • Blockages in the blood vessels.

Ultrasound can not be used for bone imaging because they are too tight for entry. In addition, the intestinal tract and normal lung tissue are not easily identified by ultrasound because air or gases interfere with the generation of ultrasound images.

Benefits of Ultrasonography

Ultrasounds offer many advantages:

  • Ultrasound is painless, relatively inexpensive and is also considered very safe during pregnancy.
  • Ultrasound acquires images of soft tissues that are not clearly visible on X-rays.
  • Patients are not exposed to ionizing radiation, making the procedure safer than diagnostic techniques such as X-rays and CT scans.
  • In fact, no harmful effects are known if used by the doctor.
  • Ultrasound is more common and less expensive than other methods.

How does the Ultrasonography Work?

It works by transmitting sound waves of 1 to 10 million Hertz to a transducer by placing it on body structures. The sound waves are absorbed or collide with crystals in the head of the transducer. For example, sound waves pass through areas that are empty or filled with fluid, such as the bladder and blood vessels. These areas appear black on the screen. The areas filled with cloth provide some penetration and refraction of the tone and produce a grayish image. Very hard structures, such as bones, create a bright, white image because the sound waves bounce off completely from the transducer. Normally, the patient is asked to lie on the table with the appropriate part of the body. A transducer or probe is used to project and receive sound waves and their echoes. The examiner applies a thick gel on the skin to ensure good sound transmission. A palmar transducer is placed on the skin and moved to the area to be examined. To evaluate parts of the body, the examiner inserts the transducer into the body, for example, into the vagina, for example, to better show the uterus and the ovaries.

Types of Ultrasonography

Most ultrasounds are done with a transducer on the skin surface. However, sometimes doctors and technicians can get a better diagnosis image by inserting a special transducer into one of the natural openings of the body:

  • During transvaginal ultrasound, a transducer rod is inserted into a woman’s vagina to get better pictures of Uterus and ovaries.
  • Transrectal ultrasound is sometimes used to diagnose prostate problems.
  • In a transesophageal echocardiogram, the transducer probe is used in the esophagus to allow the ultrasound to obtain clearer images of the heart.

Other variations in ultrasound include:

  • Doppler ultrasound can be used to measure and visualize blood flow in the heart and blood vessels.
  • Elastography is used to differentiate tumors from healthy tissue.
  • Therapeutic ultrasound is used to heat or break tissue.
  • High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) focused ultrasound is used to destroy or alter abnormal body tissue without opening the skin.

Ultrasonography Uses

Ultrasound is commonly used for diagnosis, treatment and orientation in procedures such as biopsies. It can be used to examine internal organs such as the liver and kidneys, pancreas, thyroid, testicles and ovaries and others. This can help diagnose problems with soft tissues, muscles, blood vessels, tendons and joints. It is used to examine frozen shoulder, tennis elbow, carpal tunnel syndrome, etc. An ultrasound can show if a mass is a tumor. This could be cancerous or a cyst filled with liquid.

Ultrasonography is commonly used to evaluate the following:

1. Heart: ultrasound of the heart, called echocardiography. It is used for the detection of cardiac arrhythmias, structural abnormalities such as defective heart valves and abnormal enlargement of the cavities or walls of the heart.

2. Blood vessels: Ultrasound can be used to screen for blood vessel diseases. By measuring blood flow and blockage in carotid arteries, the test can predict the potential risk of future stroke.

3. Biliary and bile ducts: Ultrasonography is used for the detection of gallstones and obstructions in the bile duct .

4. Pregnancy: Ultrasonography is used to assess the growth and development of the fetus and to detect placental anomalies (eg placenta previa)

5. Liver, spleen and pancreas: Ultrasonography is also used for the detection of tumors and other diseases.

6. Urinary tract: Ultrasound is used to distinguish benign cysts from solid masses (which may be carcinogenic) in the kidneys or to detect blockages such as stones or other structural abnormalities in the kidneys, ureters or bladders.

7. Female reproductive organs: For example, to detect tumors and inflammation in the ovaries, fallopian tubes or uterus

8. Knee: Ultrasound can be used to detect swelling of the knee joint on the back of the knee, the so-called Baker’s cyst.

8. Therapeutic Applications of Ultrasound: Ultrasound can and is used to help doctors guide needles through the body If an intravenous route is required, but it is difficult to find a vein, The ultrasound guide can be used to identify larger veins in the neck, chest wall, or groin.


There are no known risks to Ultrasonography and, as the technology has improved, the devices are smaller, portable and available for use at the bedside. Inserting the transducer into the body can cause discomfort. In rare cases, when a transducer is used, the tissue is damaged, causing bleeding or infection. Bones or gases can block ultrasound Thus, using it to obtain images of certain structures (those behind bone or gas) is difficult.

4H2 Pill: Identification, Uses, Side Effects, Dose

4H2 Pill

4H2 is an imprint on a white oval shape Tablet. The active ingredient in this tablet is Cetirizine hydrochloride. This belongs to a group of drugs known as Antihistamines. It is much less likely to make you sleepy than other antihistamines.

4H2 Identification

White and oval Pill with Imprint of 4H2

  • Imprint: 4H2
  • Generic: Cetirizine Hydrochloride
  • Brand: Zyrtec
  • Strength: 10 mg.
  • Color: White
  • Form: Tablet
  • Class: Antihistamine

4H2 Pill Uses

As 4H2 Pill Contain Cetirizine which is used to treat allergic symtpoms such as:

Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis

Symptoms include

  • Sneezing,
  • Nasal pruritus,
  • Ocular pruritus,
  • Rhinorrhea,
  • Tearing, and
  • Redness of the eyes

Perennial allergic rhinitis:

Symptoms include

  • Nasal pruritus,
  • Rhinorrhea,
  • Sneezing,
  • Postnasal discharge,
  • Tearing
  • Ocular pruritus, and

Chronic urticaria:

Symptoms include

  • Batches of red or skin-colored.
  • Welts that vary in size, change shape
  • Itching, which may be severe

4H2 Pill Side Effects:

Cetirizine can cause the following side effects

  • Excessive tiredness
  • Drowsiness
  • Stomach pain
  • Dry mouth
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea

This is not a complete list of side effects. Tell your doctor about any unexpected side effects that you have while taking cetirizine.


Avoid 4H2 Pill (Cetirizine) and ask your doctor for advice; Avoid if you

  • Have predisposition factors of urinary retention
  • Have liver or kidney problems,
  • Are scheduled for allergy testing.
  • Are an epileptic patient or a patient at risk of convulsions
  • Do not chew, and break cetirizine extended-release tablets and capsules.

4H2 Pill Contraindications

4h2 Pill is contraindicated in the following conditions

  • Hypersensitivity reaction to this drug
  • It is also contraindicated in case of kidney disease.


The recommended dose of cetirizine for treating hay fever, hives or allergies is 5 to 10 mg (milligram). The maximum recommended dose of cetirizine is 10 mg (milligram) daily.

The dose may be based on the following:

  • Other medications you are taking
  • the condition being treated
  • how you respond to this medication
  • your body weight, height, age and gender.

4H2 Pill- Interactions

Tell you doctor about all the medication you are taking including the prescription and over the counter medicine. Cetirizine can interact with the following medicine

  • Bosutinib
  • Ponatinib
  • Lomitapide
  • Lurasidone
  • Lopinavir-ritonavirl
  • Phenelzine
  • Clobazam
  • Ritonavir
  • Vemurafenib
  • Crizotinib

This is not a complete list of medicine that interact with 4H2 pill. Tell your doctor about the drugs you are already taking.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is the 4H2 pill?

The pill 4H2 is an oval tablet that belongs to the group of antihistamines. The main component of this medicine is cetirizine hydrochloride. This medicine is used to treat diseases such as hay fever, seasonal allergies, allergic rhinitis, urticaria and hives.

2. How does the 4H2 pill work?

It works by blocking the histamine produced by the body during an allergic reaction. Histamine can cause sneezing, itching, tearing and cold symptoms.

3. How should I take the pill 4H2 (cetirizine)?

Take cetirizine exactly as indicated on the label or as prescribed by your doctor. Do not use it in larger quantities or longer than recommended. You can take cetirizine with or without food.

4. What happens if I miss a dose of 4H2 pill?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. When it is almost time to take the next dose, wait for the medicine to be taken and skip the missed dose. Do not take any additional medicines to make up for the missed dose.

5. What happens with an overdose of Cetirizine (Pill 4H2)?

If you think you have taken too much of this medicine, contact an ambulance. The symptoms of overdose may include restlessness or nervousness and you want to sleep.

6. What should I avoid?

If you are taking regular medications that make you sleepy (eg, cold or allergy medicines, narcotics, sleeping pills, muscle relaxants and anticoagulants, depression or anxiety), talk to your doctor. They can worsen the drowsiness caused by cetirizine. Cetirizine may cause side effects that may affect your thinking or reactions. Be careful when driving or doing something that needs to be alert and alert. Avoid drinking alcohol. It can intensify some of the side effects of cetirizine.

7. Can I take the 4H2 pill during pregnancy?

If you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant, talk to your doctor before taking cetirizine. Cetirizine is usually not recommended during pregnancy.

8. Can I take Cetirizine (4H2 tablet) while breastfeeding?

It is not recommended to breastfeed your baby. This is because the drug passes into breast milk.

9. Can I drive or operate machinery after taking the 4h2 pill?

Do not drive or use machines when you are sleepy. At the recommended dose, these tablets do not cause drowsiness in most patients.

10. How to store cetirizine hydrochloride (4H2 tablet)?

Keep this medicine out of the sight and reach of children. Do not take the tablets after the expiry date indicated on the blister and on the package. The expiry date refers to the last day of that month. Do not dispose of medicines on waste water or waste. Ask your pharmacist to remove the drugs you no longer use. These measures contribute to protecting the environment.

Next Imprint: Pliva 433

How long does methadone stay in your system?

How long does methadone stay in your system ?
How long does methadone stay in your system depends on many factors such as age, weight, metabolism, liver function and other diseases, as well as the duration of methadone use, frequency of use, dose level and concomitant use of other substances.


Methadone belongs to a group of medications called opioids. It was created by German doctors during the Second World War. When he arrived in the United States, he used to treat extremely painful people. Today, the doctor can use it for the treatment of heroin addiction or narcotic analgesics.
It works a lot like morphine. You can take it as a tablet, powder or liquid. It must be prescribed by a doctor. People who take it illegally often inject it, exposing them to diseases such as HIV. Although safer than other narcotics, your doctor should monitor you while taking methadone. Consumption can be addictive or abusive.
Like other opioids, it works by changing how the brain and the rest of the nervous system respond to pain. Since methadone is a synthetic opioid, there is a risk of drug abuse in case of abuse. As the National Institute of Addiction explains, the regular use of an addictive substance causes physical dependence, a natural process of adaptation to the continued presence of the drug.

Methadone Uses

Your doctor may prescribe methadone for the following conditions

  • Severe pain from chronic illness, an injury, or surgery, or .
  • For the treatment of dry cough.
  • Treatment for addiction to other opioids.

How long does methadone stay in your system?

How long does methadone stay in your system depends on its dose, and its metabolism.

Many factors influence how long methadone stays in your system. Individual health factors such as age, weight, metabolism, liver function and other conditions, as well as duration of methadone use, frequency of administration, dosage and use All other substances influence the rate of methadone treatment. The clinical duration of methadone in your system is between 2 and 13 days. Methadone is an effective drug that remains active long after the loss of its analgesic effects.

The US Food and Drug Administration has found that relieving methadone pain can take four to eight hours, but it may take 8 to 59 hours to completely cleanse the body.

The half-life of methadone was 24 to 36 hours. We measure the disappearance of a medicine in the blood with a concept of “half-life”.

Half Life

Half life is the time needed to reduce the amount of drugs in the blood by half. While methadone is typically processed out of your system within two weeks, The traces of the methadone may appear much longer depending on the type of test used. Employers, drug treatment programs, sports organizations and law enforcement agencies can request a methadone drug test.

While standard screening tests often detect the use of opioids such as heroin and morphine, they do not recognize the use of methadone. For this reason, if the screening test is to investigate the presence of methadone, specific and more expensive tests must be used. Urine, saliva, hair and blood tests have been developed to detect the presence of methadone in the system.

Here is How long does methadone stay in your system?

  • Urine tests can detect methadone after 24 hours and up to 7 days.
  • Saliva tests can detect methadone within 10 minutes of use and up to 10 days.
  • Hair tests can detect methadone within 7 to 10 days after application and up to 90 days.
  • Blood tests should be performed within 3 hours to reach the maximum dose, but can be detected as early as 3 hours after oral administration.  Blood tests can detect methadone for up to 2.5 days.

Methadone Overdose

Following are some of the symptoms of Overdose from this drug. These include

  • Sleepiness;
  • Slowed breathing;
  • Slowed heart rate.
  • Muscle weakness;
  • Clammy skin;
  • Cold,
  • Changes in the size of pupils

If you think you or someone has overdosed on methadone, get emergency help right away.

Factors that Influence How long does methadone stay in your system?

These factors include

  • Patient’s metabolic rate,
  • Genetics of Patient.
  • Level of liver functioning,
  • Kidney functions
  • Weight,
  • Height, and
  • Food intake over the relevant time period.


To understand How long does methadone stay in your system you must know the half-life of methadone. It varies a lot as follows: 24 to 36 hours, 13 to 47 hours, 15 to 40 hours and 8 to 59 hours. Since the widest window is between 8 and 59 hours and covers all other possibilities, it is certainly considered the most accurate window. In days, a half-life of 8 to 59 hours means 1 to 13 days. In other words, a person can keep methadone in the body for 1-13 days.

You can also check out How long does adderall stay in your system ?

How long does adderall stay in your system?

How Long Does Adderall Stay in Your System?

How long does adderall stay in your system depends on many factors, including age and weight. Adderall is a combination of amphetamines and dextroamphetamine. It belongs to the class of stimulants of the central nervous system. Adderall is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.

Adderall works by changing the levels of some natural substances in the brain. Adderall can help you increase your attention span, focus on one activity and control your behavioral problems. If you take adderall, you may be wondering How long does adderall stay in your system?

How long it takes for a medicine to leave your body depends on your dose and your metabolism. We measure the disappearance of a drug from the bloodstream with the concept of “half-life”

What is a Half Life?

It is defined as the time needed to reduce the plasma concentration of the drug or the total amount in the body by 50%. In other words, after a half-life, the concentration of the drug in the body is half of the initial dose. It may sound complex, but actually quite simple.

How long does adderall stay in your system?

The half-life of amphetamine depends on the isomer.

  • Half life for l-amphetamine the half-life is reported to be of 11-14 hours.
  • The half life For d-amphetamine is approximately 9-11 hours

While The half-life of dextroamphetamine is 11 hours in teens aged 13 to 17 and 9 hours in children aged six to 12 and 10 hours in adults.

Here is How long does adderall stay in your system?

Adderall has a half-life of 9 to 14 hours, which means that only half of the medicine remains in your body for 9 to 14 hours after administration. Adderall will completely drain your system in 3-4 days.

Adderall can be detected with the help of urine test, Hair testing, Saliva testing, and blood testing.

  • Adderall will stay in your saliva for upto 72 hours.
  • The complementary urine test may show positive results about 2 to 4 days after ingestion.
  • Adderall may produce a peak plasma concentration approximately six hours after ingestion.
  • Hair tests also showed traces of Adderall one month after taking the dose. On average, Adderall moves away from hair within 90 days.

Note: We make a hypothesis in medicine. It’s not accurate, but close enough. We say that the drug practically disappeared after 4-5 half-lives. If the drug has a half-life of 3 hours, it is almost used up 12 to 15 hours after the last dose. The effect of the drug may have disappeared, although some drugs are still in the blood.

What is the drug Adderall used for?

Adderall is the brand name of a prescription medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.

Factors that Influence How Long Adderall Stays in Your System

A number of factors influence the length of time Adderall remains in your system. These factors include the following

  • Age
  • Body composition
  • Food in the system
  • PH levels
  • Metabolism
  • Organ function such as liver and kidney
  • Dosage amount
  • Frequency of use
  • Hydration levels
  • The person’s genetics


Adderall has a half-life of 9 to 14 hours. This means that only half of the medication stays in your body 9 to 14 hours after administration. Adderall will completely empty your system in 3-4 days.

Femara Side Effects, Uses, And Dosage

Femara Side Effects Uses, Dosage

Femara is the brand name of Letrozole. Femara belongs to a group of medicine known as aromatase inhibitors.

Femara Tablet is used to treat certain types of breast cancer  (hormone receptor-positive breast cancer) in postmenopausal women. Letrozole is also used to prevent recurrence of cancer.

Some breast cancers are accelerated by a natural hormone called estrogen. Letrozole reduces the amount of estrogen produced by the body. This reduction in estrogen helps to slow down or reverse the growth of these breast cancers.


Femara Side Effects:

Like any other medicine, Femara can cause some side effects along with its beneficial effects. Some Femara Side effects are common and some are Rare. Some Femara Side Effects are More serious than other and need medical attention.

The most common Femara Side effects were

  • Hot flashes,
  • Flushing,
  • Asthenia,
  • Arthralgia;
  • Edema,
  • Headache,
  • Hypercholesterolemia,
  • Dizziness,
  • Sweating,
  • Musculoskeletal
  • Bone pain

Note: The occurence of the above side effects are greater than 20%.

Less common Femara Side effects include

  • High blood pressure,
  • Tachycardia,
  • Palpitation,
  • Dyspnea,
  • Cough,
  • Anxiety,
  • Memory impairment,
  • Urticaria,
  • Insomnia,
  • Taste disturbance,
  • Dry skin,
  • Abdominal pain,
  • Pruritis,
  • Urinary frequency,
  • Thrombophlebitis,
  • Viginal discharge,
  • Urinary tract infection,
  • Vigina bleeding,
  • Breast pain,
  • Cataract,
  • Pyrexia,
  • Blurred vision,
  • Leucopenia,
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome,
  • Eye irritation,
  • Tumor pain,
  • Arthritis and
  • General edema.

Rare Femara side effects

Very rare Femara side effect includes:

  • Cerebrovascular infarction,
  • Arterial thrombosis and
  • Embolism.

Long Term Femara Side Effects

  • Femara may cause decreases in bone mineral density (BMD).
  • Femara can cause fetal harm and is contraindicated for use in pregnant women.
  • Liver Cirrhosis.

Note: This is not a complete list of Femara side effects. Stop using This drug and Consult your doctors if You experience the above effects or other serious side effects.


  • The recommended standard dose of letrozole for all types of breast cancer treatment is 2.5 mg per day.
  • The duration of treatment is usually 5 years, but some doctors recommend it for a longer period.
  • If you think you have forgotten a dose of letrozole, try it as soon as you remember. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and continue with your regular dosing schedule.
  • You can take without regard to meals.


Disclaimer: The Article above is not intended to replace a medical opinion, diagnosis or treatment by a health professional. Always ask your doctor or another qualified practitioner if you have questions about a health problem.

Top 5 Health Hazards of Sitting

Top 5 Health Hazards of Sitting

A sedentary lifestyle can be dangerous to your health. The less you feel or sleep, the more likely you are to have a healthy life. If you get up or move during the day, you will die less than sitting at your desk. If you have a sedentary lifestyle, you are more likely to be overweight, develop type 2 diabetes or heart disease and suffer from depression and anxiety. When you sit, you consume less energy than when you get up or move. The research has been associated with a series of health problems. These include obesity and high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, excess body fat around the waist and abnormal cholesterol levels that make up the metabolic syndrome. Excessive sitting time in general and a longer session also seem to increase the risk of death from cardiovascular disease and cancer.


Here is a list of health risks when there are too many in one place.

1. Weight Gain

It’s no secret that an inactive lifestyle can lead to weight gain. Sitting in excess has been shown to reduce the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which can affect the body’s ability to burn fat. This leads to an increase in fat reserves and favors the use of carbohydrates (instead of fat) as fuel. As a result, the body also absorbs fat during a low calorie diet.

2. Anxiety and depression

We still do not understand the relationship between sitting and mental health, or between sitting and physical health, but we know that the risk of anxiety and depression is greater for those who feel more at home. This may be due to the fact that people who spend a lot of time sitting lose the positive effects of physical activity and fitness. If so, getting up and moving can help.

3. Diabetes

People who are physically inactive have a higher risk of developing diabetes, and sitting for a long time is an important factor. Decreased muscle mass and strength can lead to decreased insulin sensitivity, which means that cells react more slowly to insulin. The lower the body’s sensitivity to insulin, the higher the incidence of diabetes

4. Cancer

Recent studies suggest that the risk of sitting still poses higher risks for certain cancers, including cancers of the lung, uterus and colon. The reason is not yet known.

5. Hypertension and heart disease

Studies have shown that prolonged sitting during the day can increase blood pressure, a major risk factor for heart disease. According to WebMd, those who are sitting all the day like transit drivers are more likely too the heart disease as compare to others.

Tips for spending less time sitting.

1. Use stairs instead of elevators whenever you can.

2. Request a stand-up desk and other motion-friendly solutions.

3. Take frequent walking breaks.

PLIVA 433 pill: Uses, Side Effects, Dosage, FAQs

Pliva 433

Pliva 433 is essentially a footprint on a pill that is white in a round shape. The pill contains trazodone hydrochloride as an active ingredient in a dose of 50 mg.

Pliva 433 is an antidepressant that belongs to the class of antidepressants called phenylpiperazines. It is used to treat diseases such as depression, insomnia and fibromyalgia.

It works to balance the chemicals in the brain.

The tablets are biconvex on one side and cut in half and join on the other side.

Pliva 433 Uses

Trazodone is an antidepressant and is most commonly used in depression. It was approved by FDA in 1981.

  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Mood disorders
  • Insomnia
  • Sedation
  • Fibromylagia

Note: Pliva 433 (Trazodone)  may also be used for conditions other than those listed above.

Pilva 433 Pill Side Effects

Common side effects associated with the use of Trazodone Hydrochloride (Pilva 433 Pill) are :

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Drowsiness
  • Dizziness
  • Tiredness
  • Blurred vision
  • Changes in your weight
  • Headache
  • Muscle pains
  • Dry mouth
  • Bad taste in the mouth
  • Stuffy nose
  • Constipation
  • Change in sexual desire or/ and ability

Serious side effects can also occur with Pliva 433 Pill. If you have any of these side effects, stop taking and call your doctor right away:

  • Ringing in the ears
  • Nightmares
  • Blood in urine
  • Tremors
  • Problems urinating
  • Fever
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sore throat
  • Stomach or abdominal pain
  • Fainting
  • Chest pain
  • Widened
  • Trouble breathing
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Seizures
  • Vision changes
  • Severe dizziness
  • Eye pain or swelling redness
  • Rash


Before using Pliva 433 Tell your doctor if you have the following conditions

  • If you allergic to this drug.
  • Low or high blood pressure
  • Heart problems
  • History of substance abuse
  • Cancer
  • Mental health disorders
  • Liver problems
  • Diarrhea or vomiting
  • Kidney problems
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Glaucoma
  • Having a history of suicide

The risk of suicide is greatest when starting treatment or when increasing or decreasing the dose of trazodone.

Pliva 433 Interaction

Types of drugs that are known to interact with trazodone include:

  • Drugs used to treat mental illness, including thioridazine; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and MAOIs.
  • Blood thinners, including warfarin, aspirin, and ibuprofen
  • Diuretics
  • Cold, cough, and allergy medications, including dexamethasone.
  • Medications used to treat fungal diseases, such as ketoconazol, itraconazole.
  • Medications used to treat heartburn, including cimetidin and cisapride.
  • Medications used to treat HIV/AIDS, including atazanavir, indinavir, and nelfinavir.
  • Some antibiotics, such as clarithromycin and erythromycin.
  • Some seizure medications, such as carbamazepine, ethosuximide, phenobarbital, and phenytoin.
  • Some heart medications, including sotalol and verapamil


The usual dose for depression is 150 mg daily. However, in some cases your doctor may start with a lower dose of 100 mg to reduce the risk of side effects.

The usual recommended dose for anxiety is 75 mg daily.

If your dose is 300 mg daily or less, your doctor will probably tell you to take the single dose at bedtime.

Since Trazodone can make you sleepy, it can be helpful during sleep if you have sleep problems.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What is Pliva 433 Pill?

Pliva 433 is basically an imprint on a tablet of Trazodone hydrochloride. And it is commonly used in depression.

2. What is Pliva 433 Pill used to treat? 

It used in the treatment, control and prevention of various medical conditions such as depression, mood disorders, mental health issues, insomnia and other conditions.

3. How Pliva 433 Pill works?

Trazodone binds to the 5-HT2 receptor, acts as a high-dose serotonin agonist and as a low-dose serotonin antagonist. As with fluoxetine, trazodone’s antidepressant activity is likely due to the blockade of serotonin reuptake due to inhibition of the serotonin reuptake pump at the presynaptic neuronal membrane.

4. What are the side Effects of Pliva 433 pill (Trazodone Hcl) ?

The most common side effects associated with the use of Trazodone are Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea, Drowsiness, Dizziness, Tiredness, Blurred vision, Changes in your weight, Headache, Muscle pains and other. Please check above.

5. Is PLIVA 433 pill safe during pregnancy?

PLIVA 433 Pill should be used during pregnancy only if the benefits outweigh the risks to the fetus. Trazodone is classified in the FDA Pregnancy Category C. This means that withdrawal symptoms should be monitored in neonates if the drug is used until delivery.

6. Is the Pliva 433 pill safe while breastfeeding?

Limited data indicate that the level of trazodone in milk is low and no side effects are expected in the breastfed infant, particularly if the infant is older than 2 months or if doses of 100 mg or less are administered at bedtime.

7. What happens if you overdose a pill of Pliva 433?

Overdose is possible with almost all drugs, including trazodone. An overdose of trazodone would mean that someone accidentally or intentionally ingested more than the amount prescribed or recommended. If you have an overdose of Trazodone, it is important to seek help immediately as this can be extremely dangerous.

8. What should you do if you miss a dose of Trazodone HCL?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember, and when taking the next dose, skip the previous dose.

9. Is Pliva 433 a habit forming medicines?

There is no evidence that Trazodone is addictive. However, additional side effects may occur if you suddenly stop taking it.

10. How do I take it?

You should take Trazodone after meals to reduce the risk of getting sick.

11. Is it safe to drive a vehicle or operate machinery after taking this medicine?

Trazodone can make you sleepy or less alert. Do not drive, ride a bicycle, or use tools or machines until you know how this medicine affects you.

12. Can Pliva 433 also be used with alcohol?

You can drink alcohol while you are taking Trazodone, but it can make you tired.

It is best if you stop drinking alcohol until you know how you feel about the medicine.

Also Read 8 Nursing Things Every Nurse should Have

Phosphodiesterase inhibitors: Types, Uses, Side Effects

Phosphodiesterase inhibitors

Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors are a class of drugs that inhibit phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes. PDEs normally break down phosphate groups and lower cAMP or cGMP into target cells.

PDE inhibitors are classified according to the enzymes for which they act as non-specific inhibitors of PDE5, PDE4 and PDE3.

Inhibitors of PDE3 have positive inotropic, vasodilatory and antiplatelet effects used in acute heart failure and peripheral vascular disease. PDE3 inhibitors are not recommended for long-term use because of their strong cardiostimulatory effect in patients with heart failure.

PDE4 inhibitors allow bronchial dilatation in severe COPD.

PDE5 inhibitors cause pulmonary vasodilation and slackening of the smooth muscle of the penis. They are used in pulmonary arterial hypertension and erectile dysfunction. Nitrates or alpha-blockers are highly contraindicated in patients taking PDE5 inhibitors because of the risk of life-threatening hypotension.

Phosphodiestrerase inhibitors are classified into PDE3 and PDE5 inhibitors

  • PDE3 inhibitors
    • Milrinone
    • Amrinone
    • Cilostazol
  • PDE5 inhibitors
    • Sildenafil
    • Tadalafil
    • Verdinafil
    • Udenafil

Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Type 3 (PDE3 Inhibitors)


Some key highlights of this Phosphodiestrerase inhibitors class are

  • Milrinone is used for the treatment of congestive heart failure
  • Amrinone is Used in the treatment of congestive heart failure.
  • For the reduction of symptoms of intermittent claudication (pain in the legs that occurs with walking and disappears with rest).

1. Milrinone

It is a vasodilator used as a short-term treatment for treat life-threatening heart failure.  Milrinone belongs to a group of drugs called inotropes, which work by helping the heart pump more blood through the body.


Milrinone is used in the treatment of congestive heart failure.

Side Effects

Common side effects of milrinone include

  • Abnormal heart rhythm, and
  • Headache.
  • Dizziness or fainting.
  • Easy bruising or bleeding.
  • Tremors

Less common and more serious side effects include

  • feeling like you might pass out,
  • chest pain,
  • low potassium
  • bronchospasm (wheezing, chest tightness, trouble breathing)

Consult Your doctor if you have the above side effects.


  • Do not drive or operate heavy machinery until you know how milrinone affects you.
  • Get out of bed slowly to avoid dizziness or fainting.

 2. Amrinone

Amrinone (or inamrinone) is a type 3 pyridine phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Amrinone is a positive inotropic cardiotic with vasodilating properties.


Phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor activity and how to stimulate the influx of calcium ions into the heart cell. Amrinone is an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE3), leading to an increase in cAMP and cGMP, resulting in increased calcium input, as caused by beta-agonists, resulting in an increased inotropic effect. The main route of excretion in humans is urine, both by inamrinone and by various metabolites (N-glycolyl, N-acetate, glucuronide and N-glucuronide). The chemical interaction with precipitates occurs with amrinone and dextrose or furosemide. Therefore, the mixture of drugs should be avoided.


It is used in the treatment of

  • congestive heart failure.

Side Effects

Common side effects of amrinone include

  • Upset stomach,
  • Lowered platelet counts, and
  • A sudden drop in blood pressure (hypotension).

3. Cilostazol

Cilostazol is an antiplatelet aggregate and a vasodilator. It works by preventing blood cells, called platelets, from clumping together and preventing the formation of harmful clots. It also dilates the blood vessels in the legs. Cilostazol helps the blood to move more easily and ensures the fluidity of blood in your body. Inhibition of platelet aggregation and vasodilation are important mechanisms of cilostazol, used to treat intermittent claudication in peripheral arterial disease. Cilostazol appears to have less cardiostimulant effects than milrinone.


Cilostazol is used to improve the symptoms of a certain blood flow problem in the legs

  • intermittent claudication
  • Cilostazol can decrease the muscle pain/cramps that occur during exercise/walking.

Side Effects

The most common adverse effects of cilostazol are:

  • abdominal pain,
  • abnormal stoolheadache,
  • diarrhea,
  • nausea,
  • upper respiratory tract infections,
  • fluid retention,
  • abnormal heartbeats.
  • dizziness and
  • runny nose.

Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Type 5 (PDE5 Inhibitors)


  • These drugs are Used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction
  • They are also used for pulmonary hypertension.

1. Sildenafil

Sildenafil belongs to a group of drugs known as Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors type 5 (Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors) and  is used to treat male sexual function problems (impotence or erectile dysfunction-ED). In combination with sexual stimulation, sildenafil works by increasing blood flow to the penis to help a man get and keep an erection.


It is most commonly used for two primary conditions such as

  • Erectile dysfunctions
  • Pulmonary hypertension

Side Effects

The most common side effects include:

  • Nasal congestion
  • Headaches
  • Indigestion
  • Impaired vision
  • Photophobia, or sensitivity to light

Less commonly, some users have experienced cyanopsia, where everything appears to have a tinted blue tinge.

2. Tadalafil

It is in a class of drugs called Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors type-5 (PDE5) inhibitors that also includes sildenafil and vardenafil.


Tadalafil is an oral drug that is used for

  • Treating impotence (the inability to attain or maintain a penile erection) and
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

Side Effects

The most common side effects of tadalafil are

  • headaches,
  • facial flushing
  • stomach upset,
  • blurred vision,
  • flu-like symptoms, and
  • nausea.
  • diarrhea,
  • abnormal ejaculation.
  • Tadalafil also may cause low blood pressure,
  • changes in color vision

3. Verdenfil

This drug also belongs to a group of drugs known as Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors type -5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Other agents of this group are sildenafil and udenafil. The mechanism of action is same as that of sildenafil.


It is used in the treatment of

  • Erectile dysfunction

Side Effects

Common side effects include

common side effects include:

  • Headache
  • stuffy or runny nose
  • dizziness
  • flushing
  • stomach upset

Vizylac Capsule: Uses, Side Effects, Dose, FAQs

Vizylac Capsule

Vizylac Capsule is a combination of Lactobacillus sporogenes, a healthy intestinal bacteria and a blend of vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, nicotinamide, folic acid and D-panthenol. Ask about the effects of Vizylac, its side effects, precautions and contraindications for which Vizylac is not recommended.

It is a probiotic used to treat diarrhea caused by infections, antibiotics, etc. It is also used to relieve indigestion such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, stomach ulcers, constipation, indigestion, etc.

The Active Ingredients present these Capsule contains D-Panthenol, Folic Acid, Lacto Bacillus Sporegens, Nicotinamide, Pyridoxine, Riboflavin and Thiamine.


Vizylac Capsule is composed of the following active ingredients (salts)
  • Folic Acid – Vitamin B9 – 500 MCG
  • Lacto Bacillus Sporegens – 40 Million Spores
  • Nicotinamide – 22.5 MG
  • Riboflavin – 2.5 MG
  • D-Panthenol – 2.5 MG
  • Thiamine – 2.5 MG
  • Pyridoxine – 0.75 MG

Vizylac Uses

It is used for the treatment, control,  of the following diseases, conditions:
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Acne
  • Diarrhea
  • Skin disorders
  • Diadrrhea
  • Whitish or yellowish discharge of mucus from the vagina
  • Vaginal infection
  • Vitamin b3 deficiency
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Whitish or yellowish discharge of mucus from the vagina
  • Treatment of megaloblastic anemias due to a deficiency of folic acid
  • Heart disease
  • Treatment of anemias of nutritional origin, pregnancy, infancy, or childhood
  • Whitish or yellowish discharge of mucus from the vagina
  • Cervical cancer
  • High cholesterol
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • Arthritis
  • Clogged arteries
  • Minor skin injuries
  • Migraine
  • Muscle cramps
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Mental disorders
  • Mild burns
  • Sunburns

It may also be used for purposes not listed here.

Mechanism Of Action

  • Vizylac Contains Lactobacillus Sporegens, Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, B6 and B9 as its main active ingredient.
  • It is a combination of good bacteria and several vitamins that are deliberately introduced into the intestine to balance the microbial flora (inner environment) of the intestine.
  • The use of antibiotics and other factors can lead to an imbalance between good and bad bacteria and can lead to diseases.
  • The introduction of good bacteria into the body leads to competition between good and bad bacteria for nutrients. By the way to die the bad bacteria by the loss of nutrients Vitamins contained in this drug provide the body with the necessary nutrients.

Vizylac Side effects

The Most common side effects  include

  • Loss of appetite
  • Irritability
  • Head ache
  • Altered Sleep pattern
  • Bloating

while less common side effects

  • Abdominal distension
  • Burning of skin.
  • Ulcer
  • Skin Rashes


  • Vizylac Capsule should be used only if necessary and with caution in cases of pregnancy.
  • It should be used with caution in nursing mothers.
  • It should be avoided in cases of high fever.
  • Dose alteration may be required by the physician in patients with kidney, heart or liver impairments.


Do not take Vizylac Capsule if you are suffering from the following condition:

  • Acute Myocardial Infarction
  • Active Peptic Ulcer
  • Allergic to Panthenol Analogues
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Condition of Increased Mast Cells
  • Cardiac Arrhythmias
  • Diabetes Mellitus

Visylac Dosage

  • This is not an over-the-counter medication and a prescription from a qualified physician is required. Follow the instructions of your doctor.
  • General The dose of a Vizylac capsule for an adult is one to two times a day, with an interval of at least 5-6 hours between doses.
  • Consult a pediatrician before giving doses to a child and avoid changing doses without medical advice.

Vizylac Capsule Interactions

It may interact with the following drugs and products:
  • Antibiotic drugs
  • Alcohol
  • Atropine
  • Biotin
  • Barbiturates
  • Carbamazepine
  • Chloramphenicol
  • Chlorthalidone
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Chlorpromazine

Apart from drugs inerations Vizylac Capsule interact with the following medical conditions and should not used in case of the following condition:

  • Renal Impairment
  • Liver-related disorders
  • Blood Clotting Disorders
  • Renal Impairment
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Gastrointestinal Blockage
  • Renal Impairment
  • Cardiac Issues
  • High Fever

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQS)

Q. 1 What is Vizylac?

It is a probiotic that contains beneficial bacteria that help improve gastrointestinal problems.

Q. 2 Why is Vizylac Capsule used?

It is a mixture of lactic acid bacillus and various vitamins. It is mainly used to keep the intestines healthy by normalizing the intestinal microflora. It is very useful in the treatment of intestinal infections, indigestion, diarrhea, abdominal conditions, inflammation of the colon, intestine and stomach. It may also be prescribed in some cases of vaginal infections, vitamin B3 deficiency and irritable bowel syndrome.

Q. 3 When is Vizylac Capsule prescribed?

It is a mixture of probiotics and several vitamins. It is mainly used to keep the intestines healthy by normalizing the intestinal microflora. It is prescribed to treat and relieve symptoms associated with intestinal infections, indigestion, diarrhea, abdominal distension, inflammation of the colon, intestines and stomach. Doctors may also prescribe this medication to patients with vaginal infection, vitamin B3 deficiency and irritable bowel syndrome.

Q. 4 What happens if I take an overdose of Vizylac?

Overdose of This can cause unwanted side effects and in some cases lead to complications. Therefore, scrupulously respect the prescribed dose and seek immediate medical attention in case of overdose.

Q. 5 What happens if I miss a dose of Vizylac?

The dose prescribed by the doctor must never be forgotten. If you miss it, you must take it as soon as you remember. However, avoid taking a double dose if the time has already come for the second dose, as this may result in an overdose of the drug.

Q. 6 How to store the Vizylac capsule?

The drug should be stored at room temperature and away from product, direct light and heat. The medication should not be frozen or kept within the reach of children and pets.

Q. 7 What happens if I eat Expired Vizylac?

Expired capsule of this product may have no effects or side effects. However, you must refrain from consuming expired medications.

Q. 8 When to Avoid Vizylac?

you should not takethis In case of known allergy to Vizylac, In patients with gastrointestinal block,  Heart disease: heart disease, disorders of blood clotting,  Hyperthyroidism, Peptic ulcer.

Q. 9 Can I have Vizylac with alcohol?

No, alcohol consumption with Vizylac should be avoided. The doctor must be informed before taking alcohol with Vizylac. Always be consulted.

Q. 10 Is it safe to use during pregnancy?

No, should only be used if necessary during pregnancy and with caution, as this is not without danger. Always tell your doctor before taking this if you are pregnant or intend to become pregnant.

Q. 11 Can I have Vizylac while feeding a baby?

No, Vizylac should not be used in nursing mothers. It should be used only when necessary and should be used with caution.

Q. 12 Should Vizylac be taken on an empty stomach?

Vizylac should not take an empty stomach to avoid stomach upset.

Q. 13 Can I drive after taking Vizylac capsules?

If you feel drowsy or have a headache, you should not drive after consuming the medicine. If you notice any of these symptoms, it is absolutely safe to drive.

Q. 14 Is Vizylac a habit that forms a drug?

The drug does not cause addiction or abuse. However, make sure the package has been checked to make sure it does not contain any addictive substances. Also be careful not to self-administer the medication. Consult your doctor before increasing the dosage.

Q. 15 Is Vizylac an antibiotic or anti diarrhea drug?

It is neither an antibiotic nor a diarrhea. It is a lactic acid-lactic acid bacillus (Lactobacillus sporegens) and several other vitamins (riboflavin, pyridoxine, thiamine, folic acid, D-panthenol, nicotinamide). It can be used to treat diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome. Yes, diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome are some of the most commonly reported uses of this medicine. Please do not use these Capsule for the treatment of diarrhea and irritable bowel before consulting your doctor.

Q. 16 Can Vizylac capsules be given to children?

No, the use of this drug is strictly prohibited for children under 3 years of age. For specific recommendations for each case consult a physician.

Q. 17 What other medicines should not be taken with Vizylac Capsule?

It is strongly recommended to avoid any interaction of these Capsule with the following medications: Atropin, Barbiturates, Biotin, Carbamazepine, and other. check above interactions.